Fermilab History and Archives Project

Significant Staff

Return to the Wilson Years


by Jo Gustafson
Staff Writer

Kennard R. Williams
Kennard R. Williams

The title of the man at the desk reads "Equal Opportunity and Community Relations officer for the National Accelerator Laboratory."

Kennard R. Williams, the man behind the desk, doesn't wear this title with formality. He has managed to take over a job that deals with the controversial topic of the times-human relations with a simple kind of philosophy and dedication that could really shake up the present exponents of "protest and demonstration" techniques.

The National Accelerator Laboratory (NAL) is where the atomic accelerator will be built. Williams feels that there can be much more built than "just an accelerator."

"If we don't accomplish more than that," he says, "we have missed the boat.

"The money for this project, which will be spent one way or another, can be put into the hands of many people who need to know how important they are to the growth and development of this country.

"Everybody goes around in circles about the subjects of rights, minority groups and human relations," says Williams, who has the feeling that if anyone can tangibly help solve some of these problems, it will be industry.

With this in mind, part of Williams' job is to encourage NAL and AEC people to give advance notice of their needs for construction so that he and his staff can search for qualified small businesses and industries that may have been part of the big picture of discrimination in any way and offer them a chance to participate in this project.

So, the man behind the desk is not behind that desk very much. His operations take him all over the country.

While he's turning the building of the accelerator into the building of people too, his job takes him many places.

"Even though we search for minority contractors with the thought of promoting good human relations, we do keep good business in mind too so we can keep costs within reason for this project," says Williams.

"When we find these people we request bids for their work, and, if in some cases they don't receive contracts, due to high bidding, which is natural in the case of many small contractors, we go over their contracts to help them understand details in, good prices in the submission of bids. We continue to request and encourage them to bid competitively on NAL contracts.

"At this time we are engaged in canvassing the whole country in search of these minority manufacturers. We visit their plants, discuss their providing materials and services for the NAL and they in turn visit the NAL site. Members of these minority companies discuss potential contracts with our engineering staff while they are here and have been briefed on submission of bids with our purchasing administrative section.

''We have to open some doors for the people who have been victims of discrimination in many forms. They need a chance to grow with dignity, develop their talents and become important people not only in their own eyes but in the eyes of others in the worlds of business, science and industry.

"You just have to `say it like it is.' While we are building an atomic accelerator we have a chance to think of more than just that. If we don't give more than `construction and completion' to this project we've missed an opportunity to do something about this human relations bit and it could do a lot for the future problems that we face."

The NAL official policy states; "In any conflict between technical expediency and human rights we shall stand firmly on the side of human rights. This stand is taken because of, rather than in spite of, a dedication to science.

"Because of this type of dedication," says Williams, "we could not conceive not using the building of the 200 BEV to help develop new, and assist established minority contractors."

(Reprinted with permission from the January 12, 1969 Edition of the Aurora Beacon-News.)

Source: The Village Crier Vol. 1 No. 2, April, 1969

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OAKRIDGE, Tenn. - The 22 young men from the Chicago metropolitan area taking part in a new training program for the National Accelerator Laboratory recently were visited by representatives of NAL and DUSAF.

Charles F. Marofske, NAL personnel manager, and Malcolm Lee, of DUSAF, visited the site of the group's training at the AEC's Y-12 plant operated by the Nuclear Division, Union Carbide Corporation in this atomic energy research and development center.

The NAL program is designed to train unemployed and underemployed minority group members to fill skilled jobs at the NAL village. The pilot program, for the first time, links the efforts of two AEC operations to train disadvantaged men. The program is being supported through an inter-agency agreement between the AEC and the U.S. Department of Labor.

Most of the youths are more than one-third through their training.

Representatives of NAL and DUSAF visit NAL trainees at Oak Ridge, Tenn. Trainee Nelson Sample, of Chicago is at work in the TAT project machine shop at Oak Ridge

Training and Technology Program - Representatives of NAL and DUSAF visit NAL trainees at Oak Ridge, Tenn. Here, upper photo, (left to right), Malcolm Lee, of DUSAF, and Charles Marofske, NAL personnel manager, watch as two trainees - Jeffery Ruffin (standing) and Elbert Smith (seated) - study an electronics problem presented by their instructor, N. E., Morgan (standing, right).

In TAT SHOPS - Trainee Nelson Sample, of Chicago is at work in the TAT project machine shop at Oak Ridge as (left to right) Charles Marofske, NAL, Tom Allen Training and Technology project staff member, and Malcolm Lee, of DUSAF, watch.

Source: The Village Crier Vol. 1 No. 2, April, 1969

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by Helen Severance

Robert Hines
Robert Hines looks over "the back 40"

Much has been written about the heritage of the Laboratory site. The local libraries, historical museums and societies contain material dating back to the early 1800's -- the Potawatomi Indians who first settled hear the "Big Woods," the early white settlers, information oh the nearby towns and farmlands inhabited by former and present residents.

What legacy will NAL leave for those who come to the area in another hundred years? Will the 200 BeV Accelerator, or a 500 BeV Accelerator, for which there is room for expansion, be as obsolete as the Indian arrowheads are today? Could these 6,800 acres be within the city limits of Chicago -- possibly the only vestige of rural living in this area? The possibilities of projection into the future are limitless for anyone interested in "playing the game."

Two Goals for NAL

Although the NAL goal is to create a hew center of technical and scientific excellence, an equally important goal is to preserve and perpetuate as much as possible of the area's natural resources.

One of the men responsible for carrying out the Laboratory's plans for preserving the natural resources of the Laboratory site is Robert L. Hines, NAL's Farm Manager, a former resident of Iowa, having received a Bachelor of Science Degree in Animal Science and an associate degree in Pre-Veterinary Medicine. With a background of twenty years in agricultural sales, a competitor in the judging of livestock and meat, winner of many blue ribbons at State and County Fairs all over the country for prize hereford, angus and shorthorn cattle, including several Grand Champions, Bob brings a true conservationist attitude to his position.

Site Plans

The existing fences around the individual former farms oh the NAL site will be removed. Many of the farm homes may be pres e r v e d for possible use as campus-associated housing. Farm areas will be seeded, with a limited amount of machine-mowing (possibly a herd of angus or herefords, or even buffalo, doing what comes naturally!) Except for several necessary access roads, there are ho plans for expressway-type highways to commercialize the area. Water catchment lakes, streams and reservoirs will be plentiful on the site. Some thought has been given to using a portion of the land for a model farm.

The former Village of Weston may sometime be used as a residential area for Laboratory visitors -- a neighborhood-type complex consisting of individual homes surrounding a beautiful lake with groves of trees and other landscaping to complement the village (honestly, no attempt is being made to duplicate the original "Big Woods.")

A nursery, to build up and maintain the overall landscaping, will be a long-term, perpetuating program to insure that the area will be maintained in a natural, park-like atmosphere. Planting around the Accelerator's Main Ring and the other scientific structures will blend into the existing landscape.

Historical Displays

NAL hopes to have an historical display of past and present memorabilia, probably housed in one of the beautiful large barns oh the site. The southwestern corner of the land might provide a recreation area, including picnic areas and a large lake (possibly encompassing 50 acres) for summer and winter sports. If the Midwest will provide the show, there may be a ski slope for the hardier "sports."

An interesting project how in the planning process for the summer of '69 is a Farmstead Day Camp for urban, suburban and rural young people to join in mind and skill-building activities. Although gardening on ten acres is the primary concern of this program, film-making, birdhouse-building, creek-wading and meadowbaseball, plant-naming, and bonfire-singing are also oh the schedule. It may well be that this group of youngsters, with a "back-to-nature" concept, will take the first step toward creating the attitude Bob Hines is seeking to establish as a conservation criterion for the Laboratory. Two-Fold Legacy

The preserving and improving of the presently-productive land will be a fitting legacy for NAL personnel to leave for future generations, along with the knowledge that the scientific progress the Laboratory will surely generate will be productive in improving men's minds, in creating hew ideas and in producing knowledge for many generations to come.

Bob Hines, farm manager, reports that 50 garden plots in the Village have been allocated to employees for their agrarian interests. The plots are 25 feet by 50 feet, have been plowed and are ready for planting.

The plots were gone within three days' time after their availability had been announced.

Hines said that most of the part-time gardeners plan to raise tomatoes, beans, squash, etc. Adjacent to each plot, he said, there are 12 rows of sweet corn which will be given free of charge to whoever has the lease on each plot.

Source: The Village Crier Vol. 1 No. 3, June, 1969

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Dr. Arthur Roberts
Dr. Arthur Roberts

The two cultures -- science and the humanities -- are meeting in many ways in the development of NAL.

For example, Arthur Roberts, a physicist in Experimental Facilities at NAL, also is a professorial lecturer in Physics at the University of Chicago. There, he instructs a class called "The Physical Basis of Music." It explores the sound, physics and the psychology of hearing in both musical and scientific terms.

As a special project, Roberts' students are creating their own musical works - and submitting them to a one-man orchestra - the computer.

Someone asked:

"A symphony based on physics, logarithms, trigonometry - and performed by a computer?"

It may be the most exciting musical style of the future, according to Roberts.

Roberts, who holds a degree from the Manhattan School of Music and a Ph.D. in physics from New York University, said:

"Computer-produced music offers the composer unlimited horizons. Many of my students have been able to write original pieces or to translate Telemann, Bach, and Brahms by programming the computer. What distinguishes the computer is its ability to produce as unlimited range of sounds.

"For instance, the computer can produce tones no conventional instrument can, such as a 22-tone scale, or a 29-tone scale. It also possesses an infinite variety of tone qualities and a flawless technique."

Roberts offered interested students extra classes to teach them computer programming for the ORPHEUS music-generating program. After eight hours of lessons, they began to write their own pieces, and then fed their compositions into a computer at the Atomic Energy Commission's Argonne National Laboratory.

"Interestingly enough," Roberts said, "out of 12 students taking the course, only two are music majors, the rest coming from six other fields. The students in the sciences seem to be the most enthusiastic computer composers."

Roberts lectures his students on musical acoustics, which includes "the physical descriptions of musical sounds, the nature and characteristics of auditory perception and the relations between them."

Roberts and his students also study briefly the anatomy and physiology of the ear and its role in sound perception.

He explained, "Some of the questions we discuss are, `what's the softest sound you can hear as a function of frequency?' or 'How many different pitches can be distinguished by the ear?' The answers to such questions affect the nature of new musical instruments and the kind of musical effects perceptible to the ear."

Another feature of the course is an analysis of the structure and operation of musical instruments to determine their effects on sound.

Although musical acoustics is a common subject at most universities, he said, "Our course is unique in its scope, because it offers the student an opportunity to put his knowledge into practice by composing music. I'm hoping some of my students will continue to perfect their technique so that they will be able to produce complete compositions or performances."

He compares the computer's musical output to that of a "sound synthesizer," which is the most frequently used source of electronic music. "However," he added, "computers are much more flexible than any synthesizer currently employed in the recording studio."

Roberts has written a number of musical compositions, most notably, An Overture for the Dedication of a Nuclear Reactor, performed by the Rochester, New York, Philharmonic in 1952.

Source: The Village Crier Vol. 1 No. 3, June, 1969

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James R. Sanford
James R. Sanford

The appointment of Dr. James R. Sanford as head of the Experimental Facilities Section at NAL was announced during the summer of 1969.

Sanford came to NAL from the Brookhaven National Laboratory, in New York, where he had served successively as assistant physicist, associate physicist and physicist since 1962.

Sanford was the first chairman of the NAL Users' Organization, Which today has nearly 1,000 members. It is composed of physicists who are interested in the development of NAL and in the possibilities of conducting research at the Laboratory when the accelerator system is completed.

Dr. Sanford received his bachelor's degree at Oberlin College, Ohio in 1955, He received his master's degree and doctorate in physics at Yale University in 1957 and 1961, respectively.

Dr. Sanford holds memberships in the American Physical Society, the American Association for the Advancement of Physics, Sigma Xi and other learned societies.

Source: The Village Crier Vol. 1 No. 4, September, 1969


Dr. James R. Sanford, Associate Director for Program Planning, has announced his acceptance of a position as Associate Director of Brookhaven National Laboratory and Head of the ISABELLE Design Study project at that laboratory.

In his letter to the Fermilab staff announcing Sanford's appointment, Dr. Wilson said, "While we can rejoice with Jim as he goes on to this tremendous new opportunity, and with him God speed, we do so with tears in our eyes at losing this capable friend and colleague from Fermilab where he has accomplished do much to make our laboratory a success."

Source: The Village Crier Vol. 8 No. 9, March 4, 1976

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by Helen Severance

E. Parke Rohrer
E. Parke Rohrer

E. Parke Rohrer, Project Manager for DUSAF, has the distinction of managing what the Engineering News Record has said is "the engineering challenge of the century." There are not many men who have an opportunity to supervise the design and construction of the large and varied buildings and enclosures for a one-of-a-kind project such as the National Accelerator Laboratory.

Graduate of NYU

Parke was born on June 22, 1924 in Lime Valley, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. He was brought up on a farm and his first taste of education came in a one-room red brick schoolhouse where the same teacher taught for over sixty years, spanning several generations of pupils in many families. After he graduated from high school, the Army Air Corps claimed hum for three years where he supervised the maintenance of automatic pilots. In 1946 he entered New York University, College of Engineering, receiving his Bachelor of Science degree in mechanical engineering. Upon graduation, he took a position with the Armstrong Cork Company of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, where he helped develop the manufacturing equipment to make acoustical tile and other products. Parke was responsible for the development of the first machine to make terrazzo floor covering, a most unusual and interesting project.

Joined DMJM 1961

Relocating in Reading, Pennsylvania, Parke established his own consulting firm of mechanical and electrical engineering services which he operated for three years until he became general supervisor of design and facility engineering for Rohr Aircraft Corporation located in the warmer climate of Riverside, California. In 1961 he joined the firm of Daniel, Mann, Johnson and Mendenhall (DMJM), domestic and international consultants in planning, architecture, engineering, systems and economics as their Far East Asia Operations Manager in Tokyo.

5 Years in Far East

The Rohrer family spent five years in Japan where Parke was responsible for approximately $270 million in major planning programs; $170 million in engineering design work and supervised $160 million in construction of 30 key defense projects for the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, all of which involved close coordination and surveillance of the architectural and engineering disciplines. He has also served on DMJM teams responsible for such major projects as the pump design for the California Aqueduct system which will lift water 2,000 feet over the Tehachapi Mountains and a research and development center for Communications Satellite Corporation in Maryland. But, he admits the NAL project is the most interesting he has ever worked on. "Two projects that I am looking forward to with great anticipation are the further development of the central laboratory building and the experimental areas", he stated.

Heads DUSAF Staff

Because of Parke's wide background, especially in design and engineering management, Irvan F. Mendenhall, President of DMJM, highly recommended him as Project Manager for DUSAF Having been interviewed and accepted by Dr. Wilson and Colonel William D. Alexander, partner in the firm of Seelye, Stevenson, Value & Knecht, and also accepted by the top management of the joint venture firms, Parke assumed his duties as Project Manager in January 1968. As such, he is responsible for the day-to-day operation of DUSAF in the design and construction of the National Accelerator Laboratory conventional facilities. The DUSAF staff now numbers approximately 170 and is comprised of senior members of the firms involved, former employees who have worked on various projects all over the world and local engineers and architects. DUSAF is international in scope and employment with just about every nationality imaginable represented, and it strives to be an integrated well-functioning composite of all members of the joint venture.

Family Designers

Parke and his wife, the former Janette Valk, live in Wheaton, Illinois, with their five active children Roselind, 16; Jonathan, 14; David, 12; Daniel, 8 and Steven, 3 who boasts of being the only one in the family of Japanese citizenship, having been born in Tachikawa, apan! Rosalind and her mother, a graduate of New York University, College of Education, display unusual talents in designing and making many of their own clothes. The entire family is enthusiastic about camping having camped from New York to California, concentrating on the Yellowstone Park area, upon their return from Japan in 1966. David must have inherited some engineering-architectural genes from his father - in a recent Wheaton-Glen Ellyn soap box derby he won first prize for the best-designed soap box racer which is now on display in the Rohrer family room! Naturally, it was called THE ACCELERATOR - 200 BEV!

Coordination Vital

A nine to ten hour workday is typical in the life of the Project Manager, starting in the morning with the logging in of the past day's events and laying out the activities for the day, which include checking on the latest problems and changes in the design division. Every other day Parke tours the construction site keeping up with that phase of the project. As one might expect, the coordination of such an undertaking depends a great deal on communication between many groups. Parke attends NAL meetings and holds his own division and staff meetings with the four divisions of DUSAF: engineering/architectural, administrative/finance, projects division construction and the Equal Employment Opportunity Department. The last item of the day consists of taking care of the mail and, long after most people have left the Village, Parke Rohrer is preparing for the next day's events.

V.P. of DMJM

A member of the Far East Society of Architects and Engineers, the National Society of Professional Engineers and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Parke was named Vice President of DMJM. When the Laboratory project is completed, he may be in the home office of DMJM in California or possibly manage one of the many regional offices in another part of the world. In this period of building for the future, the administrative and technical talents of E. Parke Rohrer will doubtlessly be in demand wherever he chooses to go.

Source: The Village Crier Vol. 1 No. 4, September, 1969

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Rudolph F. Dorner
Rudolph F. Dorner

Rudolph Dorner, formerly head of planning and development for the State of Illinois' Department of Conservation, has been appointed Site Manager at NAL.

Dorner, who joined the NAL staff October 1, will be responsible for general management of the 6,690-acre site in Du Page and Kane counties on which the Laboratory is being constructed.

Crews working under Dorner's direction will develop pasture land and recreation areas, plant trees and shrubs and maintain some 24 miles of road surface on the NAL site (and perhaps herd buffalo!). In addition, the management of the Village will be under his supervision.

Dorner, who plans to move his family from Springfield, Illinois to the St. Charles area, holds a bachelor's degree in forestry from the University of Illinois, Urbana. He plans to work toward a master's degree in public administration at the University of Illinois Chicago Circle campus.

Dorner joined the Illinois Department of Conservation at Springfield as a park management coordinator in 1963. He became assistant supervisor of state

parks in 1965. In March, 1969, he was appointed acting supervisor of state parks. In May, 1969, he became chief of planning and development for the state park system.

A member of the Society of American Foresters and the National Audubon Society, Dorner's hobbies include nature study, hunting, fishing and gardening.

Dorner is married to the former Susan Ryden. They have a son, Steven Christopher, 7.

Source: The Village Crier Vol. 1 No. 5, September, 1969

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By Helen Severance

Donald E. Young
Donald E. Young

In the truest sense of the word, Donald E. (for Edward) Young is a physicist with a mission. The respected section leader of the Linac group has many qualities-among them: Determination, Enthusiasm, Ability.

When Robert R. Wilson was named Director of the National Accelerator Laboratory early in March of 1967, he started immediately to plan for and to recruit his staff hoping to attract top people in the Midwest scientific community as well as from the east and west coasts.

Because building an accelerator, whether it be a 28, 32 or 76 BeV accelerator, is not an everyday occurrence, physicists, engineers and technicians who have had previous experience in the construction of such a scientific instrument, comprise a relatively small group of people.

In recruiting the staff to design and construct the world's largest accelerator Dr. Wilson was, naturally, interested in getting the very best men available to do the job. When it was decided that a linear accelerator would be the first injection system in the 200 BeV accelerator, the field of competent physicists was further narrowed to those who had had experience in designing and constructing a proton linear accelerator.

Donald E. Young was such a person, having worked on the design and construction of a 68 MeV proton accelerator at the University of Minnesota. "Don was the man I wanted to head the Linac Section of the National Accelerator Laboratory," said Dr. Wilson. "He was my first choice and luckily, for NAL, he accepted the invitation and the challenge." (Incidentally, Donald Young's payroll number is NAL-2.)

Illinois Background

Don is a local boy, if you want to generalize and call the Midwest "local". He was born and raised in Lake Zurich, Illinois and is a graduate of Ripon College, Ripon, Wisconsin, receiving his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1946. He started his graduate studies at the University of Chicago, but in 1948 he transferred to the University of Minnesota at Minneapolis where, as a research assistant in t h e Physics Department, he worked toward his Master's degree which he received in 1951. It was here at the University of Minnesota that he started working on the 68 MeV proton linear accelerator which was the first multi-tank proton linear accelerator, containing three tanks.

While studying for his PhD at the University of Minnesota, he was also working in the research laboratory of General Mills, Inc., on such problems as food sterilization, radiation source and computer problems. As a result of this research, he co-authored an article with Raymond Paschke and Robert W. H. Chang, entitled "Probable Role of Gramma Irradiation in Origin of Life", a most interesting and provocative subject.

Don received his Doctorate from the University of Minnesota in 1959 and continued his research with General Mills. Shortly thereafter, he joined the staff of Midwestern Universities Research Association (MURA), Madison, Wisconsin, where he worked on the 50 MeV Fixed Field Alternating Gradient Synchrotron, designed a 200 MeV proton linear accelerator, which is the type that will be used at NAL. He also contributed to the Title I study on a 200 MeV linear accelerator for the Argonne National Laboratory Zero Gradient Synchrotron (ZGS). He participated in many studies to improve the performance of the ZGS, mainly in the area of the linear accelerator injector.

In February, 1967, Don joined the staff of the University of Wisconsin at Madison, Wisconsin, as a Professor in the Nuclear Engineering Department; still working with MURA until its dissolution in July of 1967. On May 22, 1967, he came to the National Accelerator Laboratory as head of the Linac Section.

Busy Family

The Young family interests and hobbies are varied. Until recently the family numbered in the thousands including a dog, a cat, several rabbits and 10,000 bees! The bees have been given away because, according to Don, "The neighbors were a little uneasy", which is probably the understatement of the year

For many years, Bille, Don's wife, has worked with the Girl Scout organization as a leader, trainer, service unit director and, of course, as Cookie Chairman. She is looking forward to attending the National Girl Scout Convention in Seattle the latter part of this month. Both Linda, age 17 and Patricia who is 13 are active "scouters".

The young Youngs

The young man of the family, Phillip, age 11, is a Boy Scout and has started his business career in the newspaper field delivering the weekly Downers Grove Reporter.

The entire family enjoys the outdoor life with skiing a favorite winter sport and camping the summer interest. A highlight of this past summer was a four-day camping and canoe trip down the Flambeau River in Wisconsin.

Every Day New

If you ask Don what his typical daily schedule might be he will answer, "There's no such thing as a typical schedule. Every day brings new ideas that have to be worked out, new problems that have to be solved, new ways to surmount sudden obstacles; it is a constantly changing schedule and one that, because of the element of change, becomes more interesting every day".

"Achieving the 10 MeV beam on schedule has to be the most challenging aspect of the work on the linear accelerator thus far", stated Don, as he reminisced about all that went into this never-to-be-forgotten moment in the history of the NAL. Many months of planning preceded the birth of the beam.

Target Date Set

Frank Cole, Don Young, and RRW map Linac plans
Frank Cole, Don Young, and RRW (L. to R.) map Linac plans.

During the latter part of September, 1968, on a cold, windy day, Dr. Robert Wilson, Dr. Francis Cole and Dr. Donald Young met at a picnic table next to the Director's office to make long-range plans for the first beam. The date that was first set was September, 1969 - a year from the date of this important meeting. After much discussion, re-planning and re-plotting, they thought it might be possible to achieve a 10 MeV beam in nine months and the month of June became the target. The actual day of the month - June 26, 1969 - was chosen six weeks prior to the arrival of the beam.

Physicists, engineers, men, technicians and secretaries all worked together to achieve this goal. As Dr. Wilson stated in his talk to all NAL employees on October 1, 1969, "As the deadline came near, it got very dramatic. If you went over to the Linac Building, you saw the place just crawling with people. It was clear that they were having a rough time, so people from all parts of the Laboratory went up - secretaries were in old clothes, the AEC people were up putting wires together, and it was a very dramatic business." Many weeks before the arrival of the first proton beam, technicians worked night shifts, many employees stayed around the clock, sleeping on cots for a few hours, components were rushed to O'Hare Field to be flown to their plant of origin for further processing, flown back and installed the following day and, at the very last minute, a supply of sulphur-hexafluoride had to be found locally to replace that which had deteriorated inside the pressure vessel insulating the accelerator column.

It was a watchful and waiting time - a time when patience and understanding often times took the place of progress; but, it was an exciting time. Above all, it was a time when Donald Young was always willing to work as hard and as long as his team was working; a time when motivation was the key word and Donald Young, the motivator.

In the early morning hours of Thursday, June 26, 1969, after several false labor pains the previous weekend, at precisely 2:22 a.m., the first 10 MeV beam was born. Right on target! and, the "most happy fella" was Donald Young. No words had to be spoken as the beam appeared on the oscilloscope. The excitement and joy of the moment was reflected in his expression.

Dr. Young and Phil Livdahl
Dr. Young and Phil Livdahl studying design
drawings for the Linac permanent building.

In speaking about this exciting time, Dr. Wilson expressed the feelings of the Laboratory staff when he said, ". . . happily the Linac people just came sailing through and made their schedule. They made a machine and that is something we can all really be quite proud of because they had made a very complicated machine in an extraordinarily short time and made it give protons; made it work".

On or about October 17th the Cockcroft-Walton type preaccelerator is due to arrive from Switzerland at the Port of Chicago and, hopefully, it will be put in place in the new Linac building which is nearing the end of construction and will be ready for occupancy toward the end of December. When the building is complete, the Linac group, who were the first pioneers in the NAL Village, will, once more, have the distinction of pioneering at the permanent site of the accelerator and they will be ready for their next target date which has already been set - a 200 MeV beam by February, 1971.

"This is a scary date," said Don. "It is much harder to arrive at since many things could stand in the way of achieving this type of goal; money, machinery, manpower, to name a few." At the present time, the Linac group numbers 37 people and is composed of physicists, engineers, designers, draftsmen, technicians and secretaries. Again, the Linac Section is working as a team to meet another deadline; another step, a giant one, in the building of the world's largest accelerator.

If this sounds as if it might be too much to expect; perhaps a dream - ask the man who owns one - Donald Edward Young, a man with a mission!

Source: The Village Crier Vol. 1 No. 5, September, 1969

See also: Don Young: Linac achieves highest proton beam energy in U.S. (August, 1970)

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Roy Billinge, Helen Edwards Later, physicist Helen Edwards was part of the team of Fermilab employees working on the 500 BeV project
Roy Billinge, Helen Edwards
Later, physicist Helen Edwards was part of the team of Fermilab employees working on the 500 BeV project.

Helen Thom Edwards has been appointed by Dr. Robert R. Wilson, to serve as Associate Head of the Booster Section.

Dr. Edwards received her Bachelor of Arts degree from Cornell University, Ithaca, New York in June 1957 and her PhD in Experimental Physics in September 1966. For the past four years she has been a Research Associate at the Laboratory of Nuclear Studies, Cornell University.

In early January, Dr. Wilson announced the appointment of Roy Billinge as Section Leader of the Booster group. Billinge joined NAL after serving in the senior scientific office of the Rutherford High Energy Laboratory at Chilton, Berkshire, England, from 1959 to 1968. He was a tutor in electro-magnetic theory (1965-66) at the Oxford College of Advanced Technology. While in Europe, Billinge served as a guest member of the European Committee for Future Accelerators (1966-67), focusing on the study group on Boosters.

Dr. Edwards' husband, Dr. Donald Edwards, is with the Accelerator Theory Section at NAL and, at present, is mainly concerned with the control system of the accelerator. The Edwards reside in Elgin, Illinois.

Source: The Village Crier Vol. 2 No. 11, March 19, 1970


M. S. Livingston
M. S. Livingston

The election of M. Stanley Livingston, associate director of NAL, to the National Academy of Sciences was announced in Washington, D.C., April 28.

He was one of 50 new members elected in recognition of their distinguished and continuing achievements in original research.

Livingston's election took place during the business session of the 107th annual meeting of the Academy at its headquarters in the capital city.

Election to membership in the Academy is considered to be one of the highest honors that can be accorded to an American scientist or engineer. Up to 50 members may be elected each year. Those elected this year bring the total to 870.

The National Academy of Sciences is a private organization of scientists and engineers dedicated to the furtherance of science and its use for the general welfare. The Academy was established in 1863 by a Congressional Act of Incorporation signed by Abraham Lincoln which calls upon the Academy to act as an official adviser to the Federal government, upon request, in any matter of science or technology. This provision accounts for the close ties that have always existed between the Academy and the Government, although the Academy is not a governmental agency.

Livingston, who was associated with the late Ernest O. Lawrence in the original development of the cyclotron, joined the NAL staff in the spring of 1968. He came to NAL from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Mass., and was director of the Cambridge Electron Accelerator from 1965 to 1967. In this position, he was concerned with the design and administration of the 6 BeV accelerator jointly operated by Harvard University and MIT for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission.

Among other members of the National Academy of Sciences closely affiliated with NAL are its director, Robert Rathbun Wilson, and Norman Ramsey, professor of physics at Harvard University and president of Universities Research Association, Inc., which operates NAL for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission.

Members of the Board of Trustees of the Universities Research Association, Inc., who are also members of the National Academy of Sciences include Robert Bacher, California Institute of Technology; Edwin McMillan, University of California, Berkeley; Leon M. Lederman, Columbia University; Robert E. Marshak, University of Rochester.

Source: The Village Crier Vol. 2 No. 19, May 14, 1970

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By Miguel Awschalom

Dr. M. Awschalom
Dr. M. Awschalom

The responsibility of the Radiation Physics Section that concerns the largest number of people is that of protecting people and the environment from nuclear radiation.

If one says "protecting... from nuclear radiations, one implies that nuclear radiations may be hazardous. Indeed, nuclear radiations may be just as hazardous as cooking gas, automobile fuel, electricity, smoking cigarettes, or the cleaning fluid one uses to remove grease spots from clothing.

In our modern society, one learns about the advantages of electricity and learns to avoid electrocution; one learns the convenience of driving cars and how to cross streets carefully as well as not inhaling too long the fumes from the exhaust.

In other words, one learns to trade some convenience for some risk. In fact, many people enjoy smoking so much that they are willing to pay for the "pleasure" with five to ten years of their life!

Nuclear radiations like almost all products of modern technology help make life better and more enjoyable. It is common practice to use nuclear radiations in finding bad teeth, helping set broken bones, search for malignancies in the bodies of the sick, cure or arrest cancer, correct overactive thyroid glands without surgery, etc.

However, nuclear radiations like a medicine, may do good in small amounts and harm in large amounts. Hence, a very important function of the Radiation Physics Section is to teach and help NAL personnel to live with radiation, making sure that neither exposures to personnel or visitors nor radioactivity released into the environment will cause any detectable change in the health of NAL personnel, visitors, or neighbors living just outside NAL's boundaries.

Recently a milestone was reached in the Radiation Physics Section when the first of a family of semi-portable, special nuclear radiation detectors was designed and built. This type of detector will permit anybody at NAL to detect nuclear radiations and know what to do to protect himself from it. Essentially, this detector will provide "radiation eyes" to personnel for seeing and avoiding radiation without the need for a "big brother" to be watching all the time.(See pictures)

(Editor's Note: The device has been named the "Albatross" because of an ancient mariner's tradition that an albatross perched on a mast was a good omen. An early design of this new detector had the 19-pound polyethylene body "perched" on a stand. Now, this handy model can be carried around freely and easily.)

Source: The Village Crier Vol. 2 No. 35, September 3, 1970

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When one is building anything as complex and costly as a massive accelerator system such as that at NAL, it is only logical that conceptual models be developed first to provide opportunities for improvement before the final design is settled upon.

Jose Poces
Jose Poces

One of the earlier staff appointments at NAL was that of Jose Poces, an industrial designer who came to the Laboratory from the staff of Max O. Urbahn, the prominent New York architect who is a member of the DUSAF joint venture. Poces, now 32, has been with the NAL staff for more than two years. He is an alumnus of Pratt Institute in New York and resides in Wheaton.

Initially, Poces and his helpers produced models of the Main Accelerator Magnets and the Main Accelerator Tunnel in a small workshop in the basement of an office building at Oakbrook. That was when NAL's first operational office was located on the 10th floor of the Executive Plaza Building near the East-West Tollway in Oakbrook.

After the move to the NAL Village, the model shop, under Poces, was set up in three buildings on Shabbona Street not far from the office of Dr. Robert R. Wilson, NAL Director. There, models of the entire site were developed as were prototypes of the "footprint" area including the Linac, the Booster and part of the Main Ring.

At present, the model shop staff numbers seven, including Poces. It is under the supervision of Henry Hinterberger, Director of Technical Services. Today, the staff is, among other things, concerned with building models for the proposed 15-foot Bubble Chamber (the model is being placed in the pit of the Linac Laboratory building in the NAL Village). It also is working on a model for the central laboratory building. Poces helped to develop the NAL Exhibit Hall with the assistance of Mrs. Angela Gonzales, NAL Designer, and Geno Loro, of the DUSAF staff.

"We are a hard-working group, versatile in our craft, concerned with being a very competent prototype shop for the Laboratory," says Poces. "We are already beginning to switch our energies to work on prototypes of the experimental facilities' needs. A Laboratory such as this is in constant evolution and the continuing need for models and prototypes will be found to be economically efficient."

Velvie Lee Smith
Velvie Lee Smith at work on model of NAL Site in the Curia

One member of Poces' staff is Velvie Lee Smith, who has invested much of his time in developing the topographic model of the NAL site which is located in the lobby-entrance of the Curia. Smith is a sensitive, creative man with patience and skill that he devotes to making certain that the precise details of every model represent actuality.

In a speech titled, "Youth and Democracy" which Smith gave in 1957 when he graduated as salutatorian from Melrose High School in Memphis, Tennessee, he said, "When all people join together for the common cause of freedom and democracy, victory shall be won." He ranked second in his class of about 180 students, with his best friend beating him to the highest honor by a mere fraction of a point.

Lee, as he is known at NAL, was elected to the National Honor Society and was active in school activities. Upon graduating from high school, he confessed he was bored with school and, instead of going on to college, Lee decided to move to Chicago to look for a job.

He joined the Service Department of Sears, Roebuck & Company as a "Jack-of-all-trades" doing cabinet repair work, furniture refinishing and mechanical repairs. During the eleven years he was with Sears, Lee did return to school. He has taken courses in mathematics and English at Crane Junior College and is presently enrolled for the Fall semester in a drafting course at the American Institute of Drafting.

Two years ago, through mutual friends, he met Kennard Williams, NAL EEO Head, who urged Lee to apply for a position at the Laboratory. He has been in the NAL Model Shop since then, first as a Junior Modelmaker, and more recently as Modelmaker, working on the site map and the large model of the accelerator system which is in its special room at the Director's Complex, as well as a variety of other assignments.

Lee and his wife, Earlene, live in Broadview with their family of five active youngsters, ages 5-6-7-9-11, where Lee has been an Assistant Cub Master and Scout Committee Chairman, and where Earlene is kept busy just being a mother!

Source: The Village Crier Vol. 2 No. 41, October 15, 1970

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William B. Fowler (L), Earle C. Fowler
William B. Fowler (L), Earle C. Fowler

The annual meeting of the NAL Users' Organization provided an opportunity for a brotherly reunion Friday, April 30, at the Village Barn. Here, William B. Fowler, (L) in charge of the NAL Bubble Chamber construction program, poses with his brother, Earle C. Fowler, newly-appointed chairman of the Physics Department at Purdue University who also is chairman of the NAL Users' Organization. Behind them is a model of a triangular section of the unusual roof of the geodesic dome being planned for the Neutrino Laboratory area. The "ecology-oriented" sections will be made up of epoxy-glued plastic tops and bottoms with used soft drink cans as the middle layer in strong "sandwich-type" panels.

Source: The Village Crier Vol. 3 No. 21, May 27, 1971


S. Burton, R. R. Wilson, E. L. Goldwasser, Duffield, and D. R. Getz

Associates of Priscilla Duffield gathered recently to honor her as she left her position as secretary extraordinaire in the Director's Office of the Laboratory. Left to Right: S. Burton, R. R. Wilson, E. L. Goldwasser, Duffield, and D. R. Getz enjoy the photo record of the many things that have happened, in which she has had an important role, since coming to NAL in November of 1967.

Source: The Village Crier Vol. 5 No. 1, January 4, 1973

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James E. GriffinJAMES E. GRIFFIN has been an NAL staff member since July, 1969, coming here from a position as assistant professor of physics at Iowa State University and associate physicist at the Ames Laboratory at Iowa State. He has been intimately involved with many milestones in the development of NAL; his speciality is radio frequency systems. Jim and his wife, Marilyn, and their five children live in Wayne. He is a person of broad intellectual interests. He holds a commercial pilot certificate; his wife and daughters join him as leaders of the new NAL International Folk Dancing Club. Marilyn and Jim were both candidates for office in recent Wayne township elections.

I have recently noticed the quotation attributed to a professor at Harvard University: "Science as we know it has outlived its usefulness." While the quotation may be incomplete or out of context, still it clearly conveys a sentiment which one senses is beginning to prevail at many levels of society. In such a context, one might reasonably question the validity and meaning of a scientific facility such as the National Accelerator Laboratory, devoted exclusively to the study of forces which act only over infinitesimal distances and of particles which "live" only billionths of a second. Why is fundamental particle research important to anybody, or to everybody?

Such a question is certainly related to much broader questions regarding the nature of humanity and the human destiny. If there is anything about humans which distinguishes them from other living organisms of our acquaintance, it is their natural motivation and ability to look about themselves and into themselves, and make reasonable descriptions of what they see. All animals have territorial imperatives, forage for food, procreate and succumb eventually to injury or disease, but only one, humankind, measures the dimensions of his cosmos and pursues the mechanisms of its inner workings. This single attribute seems to define, for me, as much as I am capable of leaning about the human destiny. This definition of humanity includes such pursuits as mysticism, art, literature and, of course, science. I think of all these disciplines as ways men have developed of communicating with each other by creation of symbols representing the structure they observe.

So I will argue that NAL is important, simply because it is the frontier of a long sequence of uniquely human adventures. At NAL, mankind is going about his proper business of seeking to understand the rules of the universe. Of course, everyone can’t get directly into the act; somebody has to grow the crops, treat the ill, and generate the electricity. But I will argue that in a general way, the society of man does believe in and supports various quests to understand the unknown. While we may think of Faraday or Maxwell or Gauss as having led the way to early understanding of the electrical phenomena, we nevertheless think of mankind as having developed the use of electricity in a larger sense.

If science has truly outlived its usefulness, I am curious to know what discipline to substitute for it which will define as uniquely the human condition. When one considers the age of the universe, tens of billions of years, and compares this to the age of man, a few million years, or to the age of history, just a few thousand years, it is clear that we haven’t been out of the swamp very long. We are just beginning to learn where we may be headed, just beginning to assert our humanity.

Three hundred years ago, Isaac Newton was publishing works describing his clear conception of the rules of gravitational mechanics. This was a step forward in human insight. At the same time, reasonable men were burning witches. I, at least, do not look upon that as having been a very productive human activity. We don’t do that much any more. Perhaps three hundred years from now, people will look back to our lifetimes as a time when men unfolded Nature’s rules governing the nuclear structure of matter. They will also note that during this time, men had a habit of burning entire villages from the air. Let us hope that they consider the first activity a leap forward in human insight and the latter on inhuman activity which they no longer practice.

Source: The Village Crier Vol. 5 No. 20, May 17, 1973

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Julie Kelley, Mae West, Roger Thompson Library Committee Stan Ecklund, Dave Carey, John O'Meara, Frank Cole
Library staff (l-r) Julie Kelley, Mae West, Roger Thompson call attention to preprint rack in Library
Library Committee Stan Ecklund, Dave Carey, John O'Meara, Frank Cole demonstrate video cassette equipment available in Library

The library staff will wear "Ask Me" buttons during the month of August, emphasizing their hope that users will become more aware of the resources in the library by asking about materials they want to use.

The library staff is headed by Roger Thompson who has been Fermilab's head librarian since June, 1968. Before that, Roger was a librarian at the Argonne National Laboratory. His staff includes Mae West, a graduate of the Library Technology program at the College of DuPage, and Julie Kelley. During the summer, college students Joan Collins and Bruce Nicholls are helping with special projects.

The Library Committee -- Stan Ecklund, chairman; Dave Carey, Frank Cole, Steve Ellis, John O'Meara and Dick Carrigan, ex-officio -- also advises the library staff. They recommend book selections that would be helpful to current projects and interests of the Laboratory. They generally offer suggestions on ways to make the library more accessible and more convenient for Fermilab staff.

Both the library staff and the Library Committee feel that more people at Fermilab should be aware of the resources available in their library.

The Fermilab library is located on the south end of the third floor of the Central Laboratory. In the general layout, journals and preprints are housed on the east side; indexes, reference books and circulation desk in the center, and books on the west side of the library. The staff office is in the southwest corner.

Fermilab has a complete high energy physics library. Preprints - papers written by theorists and experimentalists and submitted for publication -- are available through a world-wide exchange with other high energy physics groups. About 300 preprints are received each month. They are indexed by first author, placed on the shelves until notice of publication is received. All other journals of interest to the high energy physics community, including general scientific periodicals, are found in the Fermilab library.

If seeking journal articles, a stop in the index section will help a library user make the best and quickest use of the library. Here are indexes to all high energy physics publications, including High Energy Physics Indexes, Nuclear Science Abstracts, and also indexes to major engineering publications.

Among the reference books are the important handbooks, reports of major conferences, and the classic and standard references.

''We have tried to make our resources available on a self service basis," Roger Thompson advises, ''but too many people seem reluctant to ask us for something they can't find. We want to emphasize that we're here to help and that there is an awful lot of good material here for Fermilab people to use."

The Library Committee meets once each month and is always looking for topics, books, and services that are of interest to Fermilab people. Recently, for example, a shelf has been devoted to "Energy and Environment." It carries current solar energy publications, reflecting the increasing interest in this field at Fermilab. "The library wants to provideeducational and reference materials that will help the people who work at Fermilab," Stan Ecklund notes. "The Library Committee is always looking for ways to improve the library, and we welcome suggestions toward this end."

Other facets of the Fermilab library service include a transparency maker, a copier, a video cassette projector, and a collection of hundreds of slides from Fermilab's photo files. These services are all available to everyone at Fermilab. A stop at the library during August is certain to show you something you didn't know is there.

Source: The Village Crier Vol. 7 No. 31, July 31, 1975

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Arthur Roberts
Arthur Roberts

Fermilab physicist Arthur Roberts has been honored by the New England Chapter of The Society of Nuclear Medicine for the role he played in the development of radioactive iodine for medical diagnostics. Dr. Roberts was a research associate at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and, along with Robley D. Evans, participated in the pioneering research initiated by the late Dr. Saul Hertz in the late 30's and early 40's which established the usefulness of radioactive iodine in research in thyroid metabolism and the treatment of thyroid disease. Isolating the iodine isotope in their pioneering study, they found that when administered to rabbits the iodine could be detected in the thyroid gland just a few minutes later. Foreseeing this to be an important application of the results of their basic research they sought and obtained funds to build the cyclotron at MIT, completed in 1941 under the direction of M. Stanley Livingston for the production of the radioactive iodine.

As a consequence of this pioneering work and later follow-up studies, radioactive iodine is now routinely used as a tracer in the diagnosis of thyroid disorders. In larger quantities it is used to deliver radiation to the thyroid for the treatment of several types of thyroid disease, including cancer of the thyroid.

In 1942 Dr. Roberts moved to the MIT Radiation Laboratory where he worked on the development of microwave radar.

Important research is one of two lanes in Arthur Roberts' traffic pattern. At the same time that he studied for his master's degree in physics at Columbia University, he was a student at the Manhattan School of Music, majoring in piano, receiving degrees from both schools simultaneously in 1933. At this crossroad he chose physics, "when I realized that if I chose music, I would have to give up physics, but the music could go along with the physics," he points out. His Ph.D. in physics from New York University followed.

Award of Honor
Award of Honor

Capturing a fellow Manhattan music student as his wife, Arthur (and now Janice, too) pursued their musical bent in Cambridge during the MIT years. In addition to his isotope work, Arthur taught at the New England Conservatory of Music and wrote his first two musicals.

In the years that followed, the Roberts, their research and their music moved from MIT to the State University of Iowa, to the University of Rochester, to the Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Chicago, and to Fermilab in 1967. Arthur's "Overture for the Dedication of a Nuclear Reactor," was performed by the Rochester Philharmonic. At the University of Chicago he also became interested in computer-produced music.

Recently, Dr. Roberts has been involved in another piece of unusual research, this time a study of the possibility of using the ocean as a giant detector of neutrinos. He told a Fermilab seminar recently that devices located five kilometers down in the ocean may prove useful as detectors for neutrinos with energies ten to a hundred times higher than that of Fermilab neutrinos. Such a device might also detect supernova explosions in distant galaxies up to ten million light-years away where the neutrinos originated. The possibility of locating such a detector off the coast of Hawaii will be the subject of a workshop at the University of Hawaii next September, which he is leading.

Meanwhile, as one of the stars of "The Physical Revue" performed by physicists and physicist's wives at the April meeting of the American Physical Society in New York, Arthur joshed and spoofed the profession in what a New York Times reviewer called "a medley of staggering variety." He returned home in time to help Janice direct the Hyde Park group in their performance of the Gilbert and Sullivan operetta "The Gondoliers." It was their 17th joint musical production. They both agree that the camaraderie and the excitement of producing a musical keep them coming back for "just one more."

Source: The Village Crier Vol. 8 No. 16, April 22, 1976

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Benjamin Lee as head of Fermilab's Theoretical Physics Department, is frequently asked what the new discoveries in high energy physics mean, where is the field headed, what is going to happen next? Dr. Lee comments on these matters in the following remarks prepared for a seminar for science writers at the recent meeting of the American Physical Society:

Benjamin Lee
Benjamin Lee

There is an exhilaration in the air wherever particle physics is discussed these days, excitement about the rapid progress that has taken place in the last few years. On the theoretical side, we have glimpsed the unity of all forces that act among particles; we have constructed a theoretical framework in which to unify three forces in nature -- the so-called electromagnetic and weak forces, and perhaps even the strong force which is responsible for binding quarks to form hadrons (the strongly interacting particles which include the proton, neutron, pi mesons and strange particles). The unified understanding of these forces in nature demands that there be at least one more quark -- the "charmed" quark -- and perhaps other quarks and even heavier forms of electrons and muons, of the family of weakly interacting particles we call leptons.

If there is a charmed quark, there ought to be "charmed" hadrons made up of charmed quarks and ordinary quarks. On the experimental side, there have been a number of indications that we might already have seen such particles. It is likely that we have discovered charmed particles and a heavy lepton, although profusion of the new events clouds our vision at the moment.

When I explain to my family and friends what I do and how we go about it, I often liken the process of physics research to solving a jigsaw puzzle (Jackson Pollock's "Convergence," for example). As we put together pieces to form patches, a certain image of the overall picture emerges, but until the game is sufficiently progressed, we are not quite sure. I feel much the same way about the wealth of signs for new particles. We have patches that have been put together, but we are not quite sure how all pieces will fit together into a coherent whole. There are also certain pieces which do not seem to fit into any patches at all. For the most part, the experimental findings have not been completely unexpected, but there have been certain surprises that I, for one, had not foreseen. This is what makes particle physics exciting and tantalizing. At moments of despair and frustration, I feel as though somebody has scrambled two boxes of jigsaw puzzles for me to put together. But I believe in what Einstein once said: "God is subtle but He is not malicious."

Aside from the new particles we have spoken of so far, there are several new objects we must discover. Can quarks be liberated from the confines of a hadron? Prevailing theoretical prejudice says otherwise, but nobody is absolutely certain of this. We know that the electromagnetic force and the quantum of light (photon) are two aspects of the same mathematical construct, called quantum electrodynamics. It has long been speculated that there are quanta, or particles, which bear the same relationship to the weak force as the photon does to the electromagnetic force. Furthermore, these particles, called intermediate vector bosons, are required in any unified description of fundamental forces. Currently popular theories predict the masses of these particles to be very large, so large that even the most powerful of existing accelerators cannot produce them.

These observations do not exhaust all the possibilities as we see them now, but they indicate the range of exciting opportunities that may be expected. More exciting still is the certain knowledge that nature's possibilities are not limited by our imagination. We must remember that the knowledge and arts we gain today are our legacy to posterity. This is what civilization is all about. Individual names may soon be forgotten, but the aspiration and achievements of an age, and of a nation, will forever be remembered.

Source: The Village Crier Vol. 8 No. 19, May 13, 1976

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A.F. Greene
A.F. Greene

Arthur F. Greene has been appointed Fermilab Assistant Director for Program Planning. He will head the Program Planning Office in the Fermilab Directorate. In this capacity, Greene will work under Deputy Director Edwin L. Goldwasser on planning and scheduling the research program of the Laboratory. The Program Planning Office sets schedules for the installation and operation of experiments that have been approved to run at Fermilab.

Dr. Greene has worked on program planning since joining Fermilab in June of 1972, coming from the Argonne National Laboratory where he had been employed since 1969.

Greene received degrees from Worcester Polytechnic Institute in 1961 and 1963. He was awarded his doctorate from Tufts University in 1967. Later, while in military service he was assigned to the Division of Physical Research of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, D.C.

A native of Bloomfield, Connecticut, Greene and his wife, the former Susan Jenkins of Marion, Massachusetts, reside in Glen Ellyn with their two children.

Source: The Village Crier Vol. 8 No. 22, June 10, 1976


Allen R.R. in action
Allen R.R. in action

Halsey Allen, who has been head of Fermilab's Operations Section since its formation in 1973, left that post on December 31 to assume a position as Operations Manager for the TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, N. J. Allen came to Fermilab in August of 1971 as Senior Safety Officer, from the staff of the Princeton Penn Accelerator. In his return to Princeton he joins several other alumni of Fermilab who have carried the Batavia spirit to Princeton as they seek to develop fusion devices for the future production of energy.

Allen's new post will coordinate plant engineering with the administration of the scientific development and research programs. At a farewell luncheon several weeks ago, many of his Fermilab colleagues paid tribute to Halsey's energy, enthusiasm, and boundless good will, wishing him well with his new problems and new horizons.

Halsey Allen
Halsey Allen

Dr. James MacLachlan, who has worked with Halsey Allen since the section was established, will serve as Acting Head of the Operations Section. Bill Riches' Plant Support Department will move to the Technical Services Division. Coordination with Plant Support for routine maintenance and emergency repairs will be handled by Dr. Bruce Chrisman of the Accelerator Division.

Source: The Village Crier Vol. 9 No. 1, January 6, 1977

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William Bardeen
William Bardeen

Dr. William A. Bardeen, a member of the Fermilab Theoretical Physics Department, attended a luncheon given by the President at the White House on January 10th on the occasion of the Presentation of the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Bill accepted the medal, the country's highest civilian award, on behalf of his father, Nobel Laureate John Bardeen, who was out of the country on the luncheon date. John Bardeen received a Nobel Physics Prize in 1956 for the development of the transistor and a second in 1972 for his work on superconductivity.

A notable physicist in his own right, Bill will leave Fermilab about March 1 to spend six months at the Max Planck Institute, Munich, Germany, as the recipient of a Senior U. S. Scientist Award from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation. The fellowship is given to highly qualified scientists in recognition of accomplishments in research and teaching. The Foundation seeks to foster international exchange among scholars of all scientific disciplines in the Federal Republic of Germany. Since 1972 the Foundation has administered a program in gratitude to the United States to commemorate the 25th anniversary of the Marshall Plan. The award gives the recipient the opportunity to do research of his own choice in the Federal Republic of Germany.

Dr. Bardeen joined the staff of Fermilab in the fall of 1975, coming from Stanford University where he was a Professor of physics.

Source: The Village Crier Vol. 9 No. 5, February 3, 1977


Romesh Sood
Romesh Sood

Romesh Sood, Neutrino beam line crew chief, is a testimonial for Fermilab safety classes. While eating at an Oak Park Burger King, he and his wife noticed a family group across the dining room. A boy, about 12 years old, was choking on a piece of food caught in his windpipe. His mother was trying unsuccessfully to remove the obstruction. Sood came to the rescue. Performing the "Heimlich maneuver," he ejected the food from the boy's windpipe by popping it out like a cork from a bottle. Sood had learned the method three days before in a class taught by Charles Bonham, safety supervisor and Edward Brezina, safety engineer. Well done to all concerned.

Source: The Village Crier Vol. 9 No. 10, March 10, 1977

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J. McCook, Bill Ross, John Barry
J. McCook, Bill Ross, John Barry

John McCook has announced that effective March 1, John Barry (R) assumed duties as Acting Manager of Fermilab Food Services. A graduate of Northwestern University, John was a business manager at the University of Michigan before coming to Fermilab in 1969. He replaces former manager Eric Jarzab.

Cutting up in the kitchen are: J. McCook, Associate Director for Administration; chef Bill Ross and Barry.

Source: The Village Crier Vol. 9 No. 10, March 10, 1977



H. Hinterberger (L) with R.H. Bauer, Manager, ERDA Chicago operations office Citation awarded to Fermilab for energy conservation efforts
H. Hinterberger (L) with R.H. Bauer, Manager, ERDA Chicago operations office Citation awarded to Fermilab for energy conservation efforts

"In recognition of an outstanding energy conservation program," Fermilab/ERDA Batavia Area Office has received the Chicago Federal Executive Board's Energy (CFEB) Conservation Citation for 1977. CFEB is an association of key federal managers in the Chicago area.

Fermilab was recommended for the award after a CFEB visitation to the site in December. The Laboratory's energy conservation program includes seasonally adjusted temperatures in all buildings, added building insulation and reduced lighting levels. Also, the Laboratory has received ERDA grants for a solar heating system at the magnet facility and conversion of the Chicago cyclotron magnet for superconducting operation.

Henry Hinterberger, associate director for technical services, accepted the citation from Robert H. Bauer, manager of the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration's Chicago Operations Office and Gerald M. Marks, regional director of the U.S. Department of Commerce. At the same meeting, John Colson (Support Services) accepted for Fermilab a citation recognizing reduced petroleum consumption by Laboratory vehicles.

CFEB has made available a team of experts to assist federal Chicago area agencies and their contractors in improving their energy conservation programs by sharing successful energy conservation techniques.

Other recipients of 1977 citations were Argonne National Laboratory, ERDA's Franklin McLean Memorial Research Institute at the University of Chicago and the Department of Justice's Metropolitian Correctional Center in Chicago.

Source: The Village Crier Vol. 9 No. 22, June 9, 1977

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Richard Auskalnis
Richard Auskalnis

Richard Auskalnis, purchasing and supply manager, has been elected to the board of governors of the Purchasing Management Association of Chicago. Dick was among three board members elected to three-year terms on the nine-member advisory board. He also serves on the PMAC's program and business survey committees and is chairman of a management seminar co-sponsored by PMAC and Illinois Institute of Technology. Dick joined Fermilab in May of 1968 as Purchasing Administrator and moved through the positions of Purchasing Manager and Purchasing and Contracts Manager before assuming his present position in March, 1972.

Source: The Village Crier Vol. 9 No. 22, June 9, 1977


Chris Quigg
Chris Quigg

Chris Quigg was appointed head of the Fermilab Theoretical Physics Department last week.

Quigg, an outstanding physicist and author of more than 70 scientific papers, was one of the first permanent members of the laboratory's theory department. In addition to wide-ranging research interests he has been deeply involved in the establishment of the theory department at the Laboratory.

"Chris Quigg, John Peoples, Bob Wilson and Ned Goldwasser have all committed themselves to maintain, restore and even improve the strength of the Fermilab Theory Department. This, they feel, will be the highest tribute they can pay to Ben Lee. In the coming months they will be seeking out senior theorists, with a competence and eminence similar to Ben's, to come to Fermilab during the next years," a spokesman said.

On accepting the new assignment Quigg stated: "When I came to the Laboratory, an important attraction was the opportunity to make a commitment to the institution and to help Ben Lee mold a theoretical physics group of eminence. During the last three years those aspirations have begun to seem easily within our reach.

What has been extremely rewarding to me is the development of a cohesion among group members, and a common sense of purpose. Under Ben's leadership, and by his example, Fermilab Theoretical Physics has been a collegial search for nature's secrets. There is every reason to believe that we can complete the task Ben began."

Prior to joining Fermilab Quigg was professor of physics at Stony Brook. He received his Ph.D. from Berkeley in 1970. He has served on the SLAC and BNL Program Advisory committees. Since 1974 he has also been a visiting scholar at the University of Chicago.

Quigg and his wife, Elizabeth, a member of the Computing Department, live in Wheaton. They have 2 children, David - four and Katherine - one.

Source: The Village Crier Vol. 9 No. 26, July 7, 1977

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Cosmic rays.

M. Atac with new spark chamber exhibit
M. Atac with new spark chamber exhibit
on the Central Laboratory's 15th floor

The words bring to mind visions of outer space, spaceships and Flash Gordon-type action adventures. Actually, cosmic rays are mysterious sub-microscopic particles. Their origins in space are unknown, but the average person is exposed to about 500,000 cosmic ray particles daily.

A new Fermilab exhibit enables employees and the public to see cosmic rays arriving. The display is called a spark chamber. Installed on the 15th floor north observation area, the display gets its name from sparks that are seen when cosmic rays are detected. It resembles a six-foot-tall black plastic box, with windows on two sides. The chamber's inner workings are illuminated when a visitor pushes an "X" button.

Muzaffer Atac, detector development group head in Research Services, created the display. He said its purpose is to give non-scientists a better understanding of Fermilab's research. He noted that spark chambers are "detectors" that physicists use to record results and learn about processes taking place deep inside the atom's nucleus. In addition, other uses range from x-ray and gamma-ray astronomy, to nuclear medicine and biology, to radioactive studies and even archaeology.

Other types of detectors used at Fermilab include drift chambers, proportional wire chambers and bubble chambers. Momentum resolution, data rate expected and estimated cost determine which type of detector will be built for an individual experiment, he said.

The new display was constructed with materials borrowed from Argonne National Laboratory, courtesy of Tom Romanowski, former high energy physics department head. Several months' part time work by Atac, technicians J. Urish, M. Hrycyk, W. Coleman, artist Angela Gonzales and the model shop went into the project.

Aluminum foils 0.005-inch thick are stretched and positioned on plastic frames. The thin aluminum foils serve as electrodes for each of 20 spark chamber gaps. The active area of each chamber is 20 x 40 inches. An atmosphere of 90% neon and 10% helium fills the gaps.

Long plastic scintillators, light detectors, are placed above and below the frames. When a ray or rays passes through the scintillators, a circuit produces an electronic signal. This triggers a high voltage pulser and 6,000 volts is applied to the chambers.

The electric field accelerates electrons created during the cosmic rays' passage through the chamber. Electrons then colliding with neon-helium atoms produce a ZAP and an orange spark resembling a mini-lightning bolt. The whole process lasts less than one millionth of a second!

The new display joins an optical/electronic spark chamber on view in the atrium lobby since June, 1975.

Brief non-technical texts attached on both exhibits explain cosmic rays, detectors used in physics and operating information.

Source: The Village Crier Vol. 9 No. 28, July 21, 1977

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A. Tollestrup
A. Tollestrup

Alvin Tollestrup has joined the Fermilab staff as a physicist in the Energy Doubler/Saver Group. Tollestrup also will assume responsibility for a new group in the Research Division's Department of Research Services, That group will be responsible for carrying on research and development on electronic detectors and data acquisition techniques.

For the past two years Tollestrup has been serving as a member of the Energy Doubler/Saver Group. He joined the Laboratory in a temporary capacity while on sabbatical leave and leave of absence from California Institute of Technology. During the past two years he has taken a major responsibility for the development of Doubler magnets and has played the key role in transforming the production of those magnets from an art to a science.

The new group which Tollestrup will head in Research Services will combine the Detector Development Group now led by Muzaffer Atac and the Experimental Systems Support Group of Tom Droege. This new group will still perform services for the Laboratory as it has in the past. Alvin has been in the physics department at CalTech for the last 27 years. During that time he was involved in converting the quarter scale model of the Bevatron into a 500 MeV and later a 1200 MeV electron synchrotron. The 500 MeV energy was fortunate in that it enabled the famous "first resonance" to be completely investigated; whereas the 300 MeV machines, as at Cornell, were limited to just reaching the peak of the resonance.

After early photoproduction experiments at CalTech he spent a year at CERN. There he participated in the planning and execution of the first experiment at the CERN Cyclotron which was the first observation of the π-e decay. Other "good" experiments he has worked on include the first measurement of the π° lifetime by the Primakoff effect, and pp annihilation to e+e-. He also developed with R. L. Walker the x-ray detector used in experiments 110, 268, and 350.

Source: The Village Crier Vol. 9 No. 30, August 4, 1977


New Proton Department administrators L -R: K.C. Stanfield, B.B. Cox and C. T. Murphy
New Proton Department administrators L -R: K.C. Stanfield, B.B. Cox and C. T. Murphy

Fermilab has made several changes in the administration of the Proton Department which became effective on August 15. C. Thornton Murphy became Head of the Proton Department; he has been Associate Head since March, 1976.

Kenneth C. Stanfield has been named Associate Head. Bradley B. Cox, who has been Proton Department Head since March, 1976, moves to Head of the Superconducting Group in the Proton Department in charge of construction of the new superconducting High Intensity Beam in the Proton Area.

Murphy has been at Fermilab since 1973. He was an associate professor at Carnegie Mellon University from 1968 to 1973, following four years as an assistant professor of physics at the University of Michigan. He has been active in several bubble chamber experiments at the Laboratory and served as chairman of the bubble chamber users committee at Fermilab. He has also been a member of the E-95 collaboration, studying wide angle gamma ray correlations in the Proton Laboratory.

Murphy received his A.B. from Princeton University. His M.A. and Ph.D. were earned at the University of Wisconsin.

Stanfield commuted to Fermilab to work as an experimenter during three of the six years that he was an assistant professor of physics at Purdue University. He also did research at the ZGS at the Argonne National Laboratory. He joined the Fermilab staff in March, 1977.

Stanfield did his undergraduate study at the University of Texas, then went to Harvard University, completing his A.M. in 1967 and Ph.D. in 1969. He was also at the University of Michigan as a research associate from 1969 to 1971.

Source: The Village Crier Vol. 9 No. 32, August 18, 1977

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Dick Lundy (R) is welcomed as Fermilab business manager by John McCookDick Lundy (R) is welcomed as Fermilab business manager by John McCook, Associate Director for Administration. Lundy's appointment was effective Oct. 1, 1977. He joined the Laboratory staff in 1971, assisting with installation of the Main Ring. During the past year he served as associate head of the Neutrino Department while participating in Experiment #310. He had directed the department from January, 1975 to September, 1976. Lundy completed undergraduate and graduate degree work at the University of Chicago, receiving his Ph.D. in 1962.

Source: The Village Crier Vol. 9 No. 40, October 13, 1977


Tom Kirk (R) is briefed on new responsibilities as associate head of Neutrino by Dennis Theriot

Tom Kirk (R) is briefed on new responsibilities as associate head of Neutrino by Dennis Theriot, Neutrino Department head. Kirk, a Neutrino physicist and formerly an experimenter for several years, assumed duties as associate department head Oct. l. He joined Fermilab after serving as an associate professor at the University of Illinois since 1973. During the previous four years he was an associate professor at Harvard University, after post-doctoral studies there. After completing undergraduate work at the University of Colorado, he received master's and doctorate degrees from the University of Washington.

Source: The Village Crier Vol. 9 No. 40, October 13, 1977


Peter McIntyre (R) with Russ Huson

Peter McIntyre (R) has been named head of the Internal Target area effective September 1. He is shown with Russ Huson, head, Accelerator Division. McIntyre joined Fermilab as a consultant on colliding beams in January. Previous appointments were: assistant professor, Harvard University, 1975-77; visiting scientist, CERN, 1974-75; and research associate, University of Chicago, 1972-74. He completed bachelor's, master's, and Ph.D. degree work at the University of Chicago.

Source: The Village Crier Vol. 9 No. 40, October 13, 1977

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by Mike Perricone, Office of Public Affairs

Art and science blend elegantly in the work of Fermilab artist Angela Gonzales, leaving a lasting impact on the Laboratory and all who pass through it. Angela Gonzales retires after 31 years of creating distinctive designs for Fermilab.

Angela Gonzales
Angela Gonzales

From the day she arrived in 1967, Angela Gonzales added to Fermilab's unique character by taking an abstract view of the concrete.

She asked, "Do industrial-style buildings have to be industrial gray in color?" She answered with a palette of blue, orange and yellow (even apple-green, in the early days) that was sure to arouse strong reactions but would never go unnoticed. Included was a row of propane tanks whose colors graduated from orange to yellow.

"They didn't have to be just obvious old gray things," said Nancy Peoples, wife of Fermilab Director John Peoples, who worked closely with Gonzales on art committees at the Lab from 1980 until Gonzales's retirement on July 31.

"Her choice of colors gave the Lab a really unique touch," Peoples continued. "It's such an individual style, and it removes the Lab from having just the usual conglomerate look of mundane plastic or concrete. It gives the Lab a feeling of being in touch with the arts as well as with the sciences."

Both parents were artists, meaning Gonzales was in touch with the arts beginning with her childhood in 1930s Germany. Her father's involvement in modern art, not favored by Hitler, forced the family to move around Europe. Gonzales has remained a committed traveler, visiting her elderly mother annually in Germany, and journeying to wide-flung destinations from Costa Rica to Egypt.

Artwork by Angela Gonzales
Artwork by Angela Gonzales

"She once brought me back a bottle of sand from the Sahara Desert," said Hazel Cramer, Gonzales's friend and fellow committee-member through her own 26-year career at the Lab.

Cramer recalled that Gonzales had worked at Cornell with Robert Wilson, the Lab's first director, and rejoined Wilson at Fermilab to work on the design for the site. She noted that in addition to being an accomplished abstract artist, working in a range of media from paint to ink to pencil, Gonzales was skilled at technical illustration and produced distinctive work for both experimenters and theorists. Her designs include the covers for many of the Lab's annual reports, including the commemoration of the Lab's 20th anniversary in 1987.

"She's also a very clever writer, although English is not her native language," Cramer added. "She's very widely-read, and she has a great deal of knowledge in many fields."

Peoples described Gonzales as having a keen eye for art and design, and holding high standards.

"She does not accept anything that she thinks is substandard," Peoples said.

1987 Annual Report cover
Gonzales's cover art for the 1987 Annual Report,
celebrating Fermilab's 20th anniversary.

Gonzales offered a blunt statement of those standards as recently as the holiday season of 1997, when the Wilson Hall atrium was decorated with a series of banners adapted from graphic representations of particle collisions.

Not amused, Gonzales wrote to FermiNews and quoted Goethe in giving her judgement: "Den Geschmack kann man nicht am Mittelgut bilden, sondern nur am Allervozueglichsten," which she translated as "(Good) taste cannot be achieved by learning from the mediocre (I add trash; there is not even much 'mediocre' left to go by) but only from the most excellent."

Cramer, who continues to serve on the Lab's Auditorium Committee after retirement, has known Gonzales since 1968, and remembers Gonzales’s daughter as "a four-year-old crawling around on the floor and drawing pictures." But she wryly describes Gonzales as "not a people person."

"Like many artists, she's very involved with what she is doing at the moment," Cramer said. "I met her in 1968. I remember being introduced to her, and I said 'Hello,' and she said 'Hello,' but then she went right on talking (with someone else) as she often does."

"The next day I happened to see her at the Oak Brook shopping center. I said 'Hello' but she didn't say anything. Then she came back five minutes later, tapped me on the shoulder and said, 'I know who you are now. I can say hello.'"

Hanging Committee members
Judging the merits of an art display in Wilson
Hall in 1993 are Hanging Committee members
(left to right) Mizuho Mishima, Nancy Peoples,
Saundra Poces and Angela Gonzales.

Socializing and friendship were separate categories.

"If she's your friend, she is truly your friend," Cramer said. "She will not tolerate any criticism of a friend, even in a joking way."

After 31 years, Gonzales's work speaks forcefully of her contributions.

"A lot of her work will be around us, but her day-to-day input will be missing," said Peoples. "With her retirement, I think the Lab loses a lot. It's almost like losing some of its original soul."

Source: FermiNews Vol. 21 No. 16, August 14, 1998

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